Different Types Of Airplanes, AIRCRAFT, Jumbo Jets And Small Planes
Types of Commercial Airplanes
- Jumbo Passenger Jets
- Mid-Size Passenger Jets
- Light Passenger Jets
- Passenger Turboprops
- Cargo Airplanes
Types of Private Jets
- VLJ (Very Light Jets)
- Light Business Jets
- Mid-Size Business Jets
- Heavy Business Jets
- Military Jets
Types of Propeller Airplanes
- Private Single Engine
- Twin Turboprops
- Military Turboprops
Aircraft such as balloons, nonrigid airships (blimps), and dirigibles are designed to contain within their structure a sufficient volume that, when filled with a gas lighter than air (heated air, hydrogen, or helium), displaces the surrounding ambient air and floats, just as a cork does on the water. Balloons are not steerable and drift with the wind. Nonrigid airships, which have enjoyed a rebirth of use and interest, do not have a rigid structure but have a defined aerodynamic shape, which contains cells filled with the lifting agent.
They have a source of propulsion and can be controlled in all three axes of flight. Dirigibles are no longer in use, but they were lighter-than-air craft with a rigid internal structure, which was usually very large, and they were capable of relatively high speeds.
This type of aircraft must have a power source to provide the thrust necessary to obtain lift. Simple heavier-than-air craft include kites.
These are usually a flat-surfaced structure, often with a stabilizing “tail,” attached by a bridle to a string that is held in place on the ground. Lift is provided by the reaction of the string-restrained surface to the wind.
All nonmilitary planes are civil aircraft. These include private and business planes and commercial airliners.
Private aircraft are personal planes used for pleasure flying, often single-engine monoplanes with nonretractable landing gear.
They can be very sophisticated, however, and may include such variants as: “warbirds,” ex-military planes flown for reasons of nostalgia, ranging from primary trainers to large bombers; “homebuilts,” aircraft built from scratch or from kits by the owner and ranging from simple adaptations of Piper Cubs to high-speed, streamlined four-passenger transports; antiques and classics, restored older aircraft flown, like the warbirds, for reasons of affection and nostalgia; and aerobatic planes, designed to be highly maneuverable and to perform in air shows.
Takeoff and landing gear
Another means of categorizing aircraft is by the type of gear used for takeoff and landing. In a conventional aircraft the gear consists of two primary wheels under the forward part of the fuselage and a tailwheel.
The opposite configuration is called a tricycle gear, with a single nose wheel and two main wheels farther back. An aircraft with two main undercarriage assemblies in the fuselage and wing tip protector wheels is said to have bicycle gear.
The machine that made the first successful flight in a heavier-than-air powered aircraft may be the most important airplane of all time.
But don’t forget, the Wright Brothers achieved an unprecedented level of airmanship—and marketing—that went far beyond those first few minutes aloft on the beaches of Kitty Hawk. The Wrights’ use of wing warping to achieve bank, in coordination with yaw from the rudder, allowed their craft to be properly controlled.
This concept is still used on virtually every plane in the air today.
The Spitfire was the only British fighter in continuous production throughout the entire Second World War.
It became the backbone of the Royal Air Force Fighter Command and was most noted for beating back the German Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain.
The distinct elliptical wings were designed to have the thinnest possible cross section
which resulted in higher speeds than many other fighters of the day.
The airframe was so versatile that it was able to serve in many different capacities, including interceptor, photo reconnaissance, fighter-bomber, and trainer. Originally fitted with a 1,000-hp Rolls-Royce Merlin V-12 engine
The Spitfire was later adapted to handle the 2,300 horses cranked out by the massive Griffon engine also built by Rolls-Royce.